Antimony

Antimony (Sb)

Element of group 15. Multiple allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, and rubber. Attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. First reported by Tholden in 1450.
Atomic Number51
Atomic Weight121.76
Mass Number121
Group15
Period5
Blockp
Protons51 p+
Neutrons70 n0
Electrons51 e-
Antimony-2.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Sb (Antimony) Enhanced Bohr Model of Sb (Antimony) Bohr Model: Sb (Antimony) Orbital Diagram of Sb (Antimony)

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
140 pm
Metallic Radius
139 pm
Ionic Radius
76 pm
Crystal Radius
90 pm
Van der Waals Radius
206 pm
Density
6.68 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
8.608389 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
195.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
20.08 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
264.4 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
2.05
Electrophilicity
1.540637934707554 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,860.15 K
Melting Point
903.778 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
24.43 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.000011 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.23 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.207 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
2.5 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000004 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000109 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000001327 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.000073
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (RHL)
Lattice Constant
4.51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
3 MPa
Bulk Modulus
42 GPa
Shear Modulus
20 GPa
Young Modulus
55 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
3,420 m/s
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number91
Mendeleev Number96
Pettifor Number88
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
43 ± 2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
492 a₀
AllotropesWhite Antimony, Yellow Antimony, Black Antimony
Neutron Cross Section
5.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0016
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group166 (R_3m)

Isotopes of Antimony

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes39
Radioactive Isotopes37

102Sb

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
101.945142 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

102Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

103Sb

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
102.939162 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

103Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

104Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.936344 ± 0.000109 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
Half Life
470 ± 130 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity

104Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7%
p (proton emission)7%
α (α emission)%

105Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.931276547 ± 0.000023431 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
1.12 ± 0.16 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

105Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
p (proton emission)0.1%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

106Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.928637979 ± 0.000008 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
Half Life
600 ± 200 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

106Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

107Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.924150621 ± 0.000004452 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
4 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

107Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

108Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.922226731 ± 0.0000059 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
Half Life
7.4 ± 0.3 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

108Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

109Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.918141203 ± 0.000005652 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
17.2 ± 0.5 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

109Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

110Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.916854283 ± 0.0000064 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
Half Life
23.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

110Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

111Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.913218187 ± 0.0000095 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
Half Life
75 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

111Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

112Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.912399903 ± 0.00001914 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
Half Life
53.5 ± 0.6 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

112Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

113Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.909374664 ± 0.000018457 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
Half Life
6.67 ± 0.07 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

113Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

114Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
113.909289155 ± 0.000021226 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
0.57333333333333 ± 0.026666666666667
Half Life
3.49 ± 0.03 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

114Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

115Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
114.906598 ± 0.000017203 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
1.384 ± 0.004
Half Life
32.1 ± 0.3 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

115Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

116Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
115.906792732 ± 0.000005533 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
0.905 ± 0.003
Half Life
15.8 ± 0.8 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

116Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

117Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
116.904841519 ± 0.000009057 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
1.372 ± 0.024
Half Life
2.97 ± 0.02 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.2 ± 1.2
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

117Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

118Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
117.905532194 ± 0.000003237 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
2.46 ± 0.07
Half Life
3.6 ± 0.1 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

118Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

119Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
118.903944062 ± 0.000007512 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
1.38 ± 0.004
Half Life
38.19 ± 0.22 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

119Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

120Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
119.905080308 ± 0.000007728 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
2.3 ± 0.2
Half Life
15.89 ± 0.04 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

120Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

121Sb

Abundance
57.21 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
120.903811353 ± 0.00000269 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.543 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

122Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
121.905169335 ± 0.000002687 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
-0.95 ± 0.01
Half Life
2.7238 ± 0.0002 d
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
1.28 ± 0.08
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

122Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)97.59%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)2.41%

123Sb

Abundance
42.79 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
122.904215292 ± 0.000001456 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.692 ± 0.014
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

124Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
123.905937065 ± 0.000001457 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0.4 ± 0.0066666666666667
Half Life
60.2 ± 0.03 d
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
2.8 ± 0.2
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

124Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

125Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.905254264 ± 0.0000027 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
0.75142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
2.7576 ± 0.0011 y
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

125Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

126Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
125.907253158 ± 0.000034189 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0.16 ± 0.00875
Half Life
12.35 ± 0.06 d
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1956
Parity-

126Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

127Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.906925557 ± 0.000005457 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
0.77142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
3.85 ± 0.05 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

127Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

128Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
127.909146121 ± 0.000020169 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0.1625 ± 0.025
Half Life
9.05 ± 0.04 h
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1956
Parity-

128Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

129Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.909146623 ± 0.000022786 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
0.79714285714286 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
4.366 ± 0.026 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

129Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

130Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
129.911662686 ± 0.000015257 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
Half Life
39.5 ± 0.8 m
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity-

130Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

131Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.911989339 ± 0.000002236 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
0.82571428571429 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
23.03 ± 0.04 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1956
Parity+

131Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

132Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.914508013 ± 0.000002648 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
Half Life
2.79 ± 0.07 m
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1956
Parity

132Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

133Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.915272128 ± 0.000003357 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
0.85714285714286 ± 0.011428571428571
Half Life
2.34 ± 0.05 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

133Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

134Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.920537334 ± 0.0000033 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
674 ± 4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

134Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

135Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.925184354 ± 0.000002834 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
Half Life
1.668 ± 0.009 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

135Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)19.1%

136Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.930749009 ± 0.000006258 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
Half Life
923 ± 14 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

136Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)24.7%
2n (2-neutron emission)0.14%

137Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.935522519 ± 0.000056 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
Half Life
497 ± 21 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

137Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)49%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

138Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.941331 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
Half Life
333 ± 7 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

138Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)72%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

139Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.946269 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
Half Life
182 ± 9 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

139Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)90%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

140Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.952345 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
Half Life
170 ± 6 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

140Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)23%
2n (2-neutron emission)7.6%

141Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.957552 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
Half Life
103 ± 29 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

141Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

142Sb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.963918 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
Half Life
80 ± 50 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity

142Sb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

One of antimony's minerals, stibnite was recognized in predynastic Egypt as an eye cosmetic as early as about 3100 BC. The first European description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. The first natural occurrence of pure antimony in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783. From the Greek word anti plus monos - a metal not found alone

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: anti and monos (not alone); symbol from mineral stibnite.
PronunciationAN-teh-MOH-ni (English)
Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic
Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

Uses

The largest applications for metallic antimony are as alloying material for lead and tin and for lead antimony plates in lead-acid batteries. Alloying lead and tin with antimony improves the properties of the alloys which are used in solders, bullets and plain bearings. Antimony trioxide is used as a flame retardant in adhesives, plastics, rubber and textiles. It is alloyed with other metals to increase their hardness. Also in the manufacture of a few special types of semiconductor devices. Also in plastics and chemicals. A few kinds of over-the-counter cold and flu remedies use antimony compounds.

Sources

Found in stibnite (Sb2S3) and in valentinite (Sb2O3).

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00024 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000012 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.0256
2p4.1274
2s13.4046
3d14.2002
3p17.8161
3s17.7909
4d32.0256
4p28.8188
4s27.4564
5p41.0055
5s39.389