Tellurium

Tellurium (Te)

Silvery metalloid element of group 16. Eight natural isotopes, nine radioactive isotopes. Used in semiconductors and to a degree in some steels. Chemistry is similar to Sulphur. Discovered in 1782 by Franz Miller.
Atomic Number52
Atomic Weight127.6
Mass Number130
Group16
Period5
Blockp
Protons52 p+
Neutrons78 n0
Electrons52 e-
Tellurium element 2.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Te (Tellurium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Te (Tellurium) Bohr Model: Te (Tellurium) Orbital Diagram of Te (Tellurium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
140 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
136 pm
Metallic Radius
137 pm
Ionic Radius
221 pm
Crystal Radius
207 pm
Van der Waals Radius
206 pm
Density
6.232 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.970876 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
9.00966 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
49.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.91 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
196.6 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 6
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
2.1
Electrophilicity
2.141210947219293 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,261.15 K
Melting Point
722.66 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
2,329.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearance
Refractive Index
1.000991
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
14.3 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
25.73 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.202 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeSemiconductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.01 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000039 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000498 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000243
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
4.45 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
2.25 MPa
Bulk Modulus
65 GPa
Shear Modulus
16 GPa
Young Modulus
43 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
2,610 m/s
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number94
Mendeleev Number102
Pettifor Number92
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
38 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
445 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
5.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0013
Quantum Numbers3P2
Space Group152 (P3121)

Isotopes of Tellurium

Stable Isotopes8
Unstable Isotopes34
Radioactive Isotopes36

104Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.946723408 ± 0.000340967 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

104Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

105Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.943304516 ± 0.000322084 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
633 ± 66 ns
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2006
Parity+

105Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

106Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.937498521 ± 0.000107934 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
0
Half Life
78 ± 11 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

106Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

107Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.934882 ± 0.000108 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
3.22 ± 0.09 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

107Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)70%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

108Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.929380469 ± 0.000005808 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

108Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)51%
α (α emission)49%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2.4%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.065%

109Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.927304532 ± 0.000004704 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
4.4 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

109Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)96.1%
α (α emission)3.9%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)9.4%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.0049%

110Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.922458102 ± 0.000007058 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0
Half Life
18.6 ± 0.8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

110Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

111Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.921000587 ± 0.0000069 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
Half Life
26.2 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity

111Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

112Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.916727848 ± 0.000009 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

112Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

113Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.915891 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
Half Life
1.7 ± 0.2 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

113Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

114Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
113.91208782 ± 0.000026224 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
0
Half Life
15.2 ± 0.7 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

114Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

115Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
114.911902 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
Half Life
5.8 ± 0.2 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

115Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

116Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
115.908465558 ± 0.000025986 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.49 ± 0.04 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

116Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

117Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
116.908646227 ± 0.000014444 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
Half Life
62 ± 2 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

117Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)75%
e+ (positron emission)25%

118Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
117.905860104 ± 0.000019652 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6 ± 0.02 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

118Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

119Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
118.906405699 ± 0.000007813 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
0.5 ± 0.1
Half Life
16.05 ± 0.05 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

119Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)97.94%
e+ (positron emission)2.06%

120Te

Abundance
0.09 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
119.904065779 ± 0.00000188 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

120Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

121Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
120.904945065 ± 0.000027734 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
Half Life
19.31 ± 0.07 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

121Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

122Te

Abundance
2.55 ± 0.12
Relative Atomic Mass
121.903044708 ± 0.000001456 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

123Te

Abundance
0.89 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
122.904271022 ± 0.000001454 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

123Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

124Te

Abundance
4.74 ± 0.14
Relative Atomic Mass
123.902818341 ± 0.000001451 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

125Te

Abundance
7.07 ± 0.15
Relative Atomic Mass
124.904431178 ± 0.000001451 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1931
Parity+

126Te

Abundance
8.84 ± 0.25
Relative Atomic Mass
125.903312144 ± 0.000001453 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

127Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.905226993 ± 0.000001465 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
0.42333333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
Half Life
9.35 ± 0.07 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

127Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

128Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
31.74 ± 0.08
Relative Atomic Mass
127.904461237 ± 0.000000758 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.25 ± 0.09 Yy
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

128Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

129Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.906596419 ± 0.000000763 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
0.468 ± 0.0026666666666667
Half Life
69.6 ± 0.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.055 ± 0.013
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

129Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

130Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
34.08 ± 0.62
Relative Atomic Mass
129.906222745 ± 0.000000011 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
0
Half Life
791 ± 21 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

130Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

131Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.90852221 ± 0.000000065 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
0.464 ± 0.006
Half Life
25 ± 0.1 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

131Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

132Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.908546713 ± 0.000003742 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.204 ± 0.013 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

132Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

133Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.91096333 ± 0.000002218 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
0.56666666666667 ± 0.013333333333333
Half Life
12.5 ± 0.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.23 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

133Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

134Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.911396376 ± 0.000002948 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
41.8 ± 0.8 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

134Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

135Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.916554715 ± 0.000001848 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
-0.19714285714286 ± 0.014285714285714
Half Life
19 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.29 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

135Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

136Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.92010118 ± 0.000002448 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
0
Half Life
17.63 ± 0.09 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

136Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.37%

137Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.925599354 ± 0.000002254 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
Half Life
2.49 ± 0.05 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

137Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.94%

138Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.929472452 ± 0.000004065 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.46 ± 0.25 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

138Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4.8%

139Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.935367191 ± 0.0000038 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
Half Life
724 ± 81 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

139Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

140Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.939487057 ± 0.000015434 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
351 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

140Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

141Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.945604 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
Half Life
193 ± 16 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

141Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

142Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.950027 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
147 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

142Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

143Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
142.956489 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
Half Life
120 ± 8 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

143Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

144Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
143.961116 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
93 ± 60 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2015
Parity+

144Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

145Te

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
144.967783 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

145Te Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Tellurium was discovered in Transylvania in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing tellurium and gold. In 1789, another Hungarian scientist, Pál Kitaibel, also discovered the element independently in an ore from Deutsch-Pilsen which had been regarded as argentiferous molybdenite. In 1798, it was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth who earlier isolated it from the mineral calaverite. From the Latin word tellus, earth

DiscoverersFranz Müller von Reichenstein
Discovery LocationRomania
Discovery Year1782
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: tellus (earth).
Pronunciationte-LOOR-i-em (English)
Tellurium and tellurium compounds are considered to be mildly toxic
In air, tellurium burns with a greenish-blue flames, forming the dioxide

Uses

The primary use of tellurium is in alloys, foremost in steel and copper to improve machinability. Tellurium is used as a basic ingredient in blasting caps, and is added to cast iron for chill control. It is used in vulcanizing rubber and in catalysts for petroleum cracking. Tellurium is used as a coloring agent in ceramics. Used to improve the machining quality of copper and stainless steel products and to color glass and ceramics. Also in thermoelectric devices. Some is used in the rubber industry and it is a basic ingredient in manufacturing blasting caps.

Sources

Obtained as a by-product of copper and lead refining.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.001 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.00021 %
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe
0.0000009 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.0432
2p4.14
2s13.6688
3d14.1607
3p17.9911
3s18.0019
4d32.04
4p28.878
4s27.5916
5p41.1915
5s39.462