Antimony

Antimony (Sb)

Element of group 15. Multiple allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, and rubber. Attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. First reported by Tholden in 1450.
Atomic Number51
Atomic Weight121.76
Mass Number121
Group15
Period5
Blockp
Protons51 p+
Neutrons70 n0
Electrons51 e-
Antimony-2.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
140 pm
Metallic Radius
139 pm
Ionic Radius
76 pm
Crystal Radius
90 pm
Van der Waals radius
206 pm
Density
6.68 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,908 K
Melting Point
903.9 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Electronegativity
2.05
Electrophilicity
1.5406379347076 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
8.608389 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
195.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
20.08 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
264.4 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.23 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.207 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
24.43 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
43 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
492 a₀
Oxidation States-3, 3, 5
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (RHL)
Lattice Constant
4.51 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number91
Mendeleev Number96
Pettifor Number88
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00024 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe4×10-8%

Isotopes of Antimony

Stable Isotopes
121Sb 123Sb
Unstable Isotopes
103Sb 104Sb 105Sb 106Sb 107Sb 108Sb 109Sb 110Sb 111Sb 112Sb 113Sb 114Sb 115Sb 116Sb 117Sb 118Sb 119Sb 120Sb 122Sb 124Sb 125Sb 126Sb 127Sb 128Sb 129Sb 130Sb 131Sb 132Sb 133Sb 134Sb 135Sb 136Sb 137Sb 138Sb 139Sb

History

One of antimony's minerals, stibnite was recognized in predynastic Egypt as an eye cosmetic as early as about 3100 BC. The first European description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. The first natural occurrence of pure antimony in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783. From the Greek word anti plus monos - a metal not found alone

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginGreek: anti and monos (not alone); symbol from mineral stibnite.
Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic
Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

Uses

The largest applications for metallic antimony are as alloying material for lead and tin and for lead antimony plates in lead-acid batteries. Alloying lead and tin with antimony improves the properties of the alloys which are used in solders, bullets and plain bearings. Antimony trioxide is used as a flame retardant in adhesives, plastics, rubber and textiles. It is alloyed with other metals to increase their hardness. Also in the manufacture of a few special types of semiconductor devices. Also in plastics and chemicals. A few kinds of over-the-counter cold and flu remedies use antimony compounds.

Sources

Found in stibnite (Sb2S3) and in valentinite (Sb2O3).