Tin

Tin (Sn)

Silvery malleable metallic element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. Twenty-six isotopes are known, five of which are radioactive. Chemically reactive. Combines directly with chlorine and oxygen and displaces hydrogen from dilute acids.
Atomic Number50
Atomic Weight118.71
Mass Number120
Group14
Period5
Blockp
Protons50 p+
Neutrons70 n0
Electrons50 e-
Cín.PNG Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
140 pm
Metallic Radius
142 pm
Ionic Radius
55 pm
Crystal Radius
69 pm
Van der Waals radius
217 pm
Density
7.287 g/cm³
Boiling Point
2,543 K
Melting Point
505.1 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Electronegativity
1.96
Electrophilicity
1.4342383362937 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.112067 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
7.343917 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
296 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.07 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
301.2 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.227 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
66.8 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
53 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
659 a₀
Oxidation States-4, 2, 4
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureCentered Tetragonal (TET)
Lattice Constant
5.82 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number83
Mendeleev Number90
Pettifor Number83
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.3 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.000004 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe4×10-7%

Isotopes of Tin

Stable Isotopes
112Sn 114Sn 115Sn 116Sn 117Sn 118Sn 119Sn 120Sn 122Sn 124Sn
Unstable Isotopes
99Sn 100Sn 101Sn 102Sn 103Sn 104Sn 105Sn 106Sn 107Sn 108Sn 109Sn 110Sn 111Sn 113Sn 121Sn 123Sn 125Sn 126Sn 127Sn 128Sn 129Sn 130Sn 131Sn 132Sn 133Sn 134Sn 135Sn 136Sn 137Sn

History

Tin was first smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze. The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC. Cassiterite, the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times. British scientist Robert Boyle published a description of his experiments on the oxidation of tin in 1673. The Latin word for tin is stannum

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginNamed after Etruscan god, Tinia; symbol from Latin: stannum (tin).
Tin is considered to be non-toxic but most tin salts are toxic
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the tin cry can be heard

Uses

Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion. It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead. Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. Tin chloride is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk. Used as a coating for steel cans since it is nontoxic and noncorrosive. Also in solder (33%Sn:67%Pb), bronze (20%Sn:80%Cu), and pewter. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), a compound of tin and fluorine is used in some toothpaste.

Sources

Principally found in the ore cassiterite(SnO2) and stannine (Cu2FeSnS4).