Thallium

Thallium (Tl)

chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81
Atomic Number81
Atomic Weight204.38
mass number205
Group13
Period6
Blockp
proton81 p+
neutron124 n0
electron81 e-
Animated Bohr model of Tl (Thallium)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
190 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
144 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
150 pm
Crystal Radius
164 pm
Van der Waals radius
196 pm
density
11.8 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Thallium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energia
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.108287 eV/particle
ionization energy of Tl (Thallium)
enthalpy of vaporization
162.4 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
4.31 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
182.2 kJ/mol
electron
Tegimen electronicum2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Bohr model: Tl (Thallium)
valence electron3
Lewis structure: Tl (Thallium)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Enhanced Bohr model of Tl (Thallium)
Orbital Diagram of Tl (Thallium)
oxidation number-5, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.8
Electrophilicity Index
0.9173102715055317 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
1746.15 K
Melting Point
577.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Punctum triplex
appearance
Color
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
46.1 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.0000299 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6.7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
Superconductrum
2.38 K
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000613 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000356
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.46 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
1.2 MPa
bulk modulus
43 GPa
shear modulus
2.8 GPa
Young's modulus
8 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.45
celeritas soni
818 m/s
classificare
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number81
Mendeleev Number85
Pettifor Number78
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
3.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00059
quantum number2P1/2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Thallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes41
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition20570.49%20570.49%20329.52%20329.52%

176Tl

mass number176
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
176.000627731 ± 0.000089166 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6.2 ± 2.3 ms
Volubilitas3
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus2004
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Tl

mass number177
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
176.996414252 ± 0.000023218 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18 ± 5 ms
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)73%
p (proton emission)

178Tl

mass number178
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
177.995047 ± 0.00011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
255 ± 9 ms
Volubilitas4
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)62%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)38%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.15%

179Tl

mass number179
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
178.991122185 ± 0.000041495 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
437 ± 9 ms
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1983
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)60%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

180Tl

mass number180
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
179.98991895 ± 0.000075058 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.09 ± 0.01 s
Volubilitas4
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
α (α emission)7%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.0032%

181Tl

mass number181
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
180.986259978 ± 0.000009771 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.9 ± 0.1 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)8.6%

182Tl

mass number182
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
181.985692649 ± 0.000012856 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.9 ± 0.1 s
Volubilitas4
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.49%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)3.4%

183Tl

mass number183
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
182.982192843 ± 0.000010017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6.9 ± 0.7 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)

184Tl

mass number184
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
183.981874973 ± 0.000010747 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.5 ± 0.2 s
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.78%
α (α emission)1.22%

185Tl

mass number185
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
184.978789189 ± 0.000022194 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
19.5 ± 0.5 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1976
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

186Tl

mass number186
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
185.978654787 ± 0.000022276 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.5 ± 0.5 s
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1975
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)

187Tl

mass number187
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
186.97590474 ± 0.00000864 Da
g-factor
3.08 ± 0.12
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1976
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Tl

mass number188
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
187.976020886 ± 0.000032103 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
71 ± 2 s
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1970
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Tl

mass number189
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
188.973573525 ± 0.000008983 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.3 ± 0.2 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

190Tl

mass number190
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
189.973841771 ± 0.000007784 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.6 ± 0.3 m
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1970
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

191Tl

mass number191
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
190.971784093 ± 0.000007889 Da
g-factor
3.164 ± 0.008
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1974
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

192Tl

mass number192
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
191.972225 ± 0.000034 Da
g-factor
0.0995 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.6 ± 0.4 m
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1961
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Tl

mass number193
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
192.970501994 ± 0.0000072 Da
g-factor
3.17 ± 0.006
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21.6 ± 0.8 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

194Tl

mass number194
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
193.971081408 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0.0695 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
33 ± 0.5 m
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.282 ± 0.007
repertus1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

195Tl

mass number195
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
194.969774052 ± 0.000011944 Da
g-factor
3.14 ± 0.08
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.16 ± 0.05 h
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

196Tl

mass number196
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
195.970481189 ± 0.000013 Da
g-factor
0.036 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.84 ± 0.03 h
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.178 ± 0.014
repertus1955
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

197Tl

mass number197
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
196.969560492 ± 0.000014573 Da
g-factor
3.14 ± 0.04
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.84 ± 0.04 h
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

198Tl

mass number198
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
197.970446669 ± 0.0000081 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0.005
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.3 ± 0.5 h
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

199Tl

mass number199
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
198.969877 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
3.18 ± 0.04
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.42 ± 0.08 h
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

200Tl

mass number200
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
199.970963608 ± 0.000006182 Da
g-factor
0.02 ± 0.005
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
26.1 ± 0.1 h
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

201Tl

mass number201
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
200.970820235 ± 0.000015228 Da
g-factor
3.198 ± 0.006
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.0421 ± 0.0008 d
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

202Tl

mass number202
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
201.972108874 ± 0.000001972 Da
g-factor
0.03 ± 0.005
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
12.31 ± 0.08 d
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1940
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

203Tl

mass number203
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
202.972344098 ± 0.000001257 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
29.515 ± 0.044
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1931
parity+

204Tl

mass number204
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
203.97386342 ± 0.000001238 Da
g-factor
0.045 ± 0.005
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.783 ± 0.012 y
Volubilitas2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1953
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)97.08%
EC+B+2.92%

205Tl

mass number205
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
204.974427318 ± 0.00000133 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
70.485 ± 0.044
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1931
parity+

206Tl

mass number206
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
205.976110108 ± 0.00000138 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.202 ± 0.011 m
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1935
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

207Tl

mass number207
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
206.977418605 ± 0.000005839 Da
g-factor
3.738 ± 0.01
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.77 ± 0.02 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1908
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

208Tl

mass number208
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
207.982018006 ± 0.000001989 Da
g-factor
0.0582 ± 0.0026
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.053 ± 0.004 m
Volubilitas5
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1909
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

209Tl

mass number209
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
208.985351713 ± 0.000006559 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.162 ± 0.007 m
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Tl

mass number210
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
209.990072942 ± 0.000012456 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.3 ± 0.03 m
Volubilitas5
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1909
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.009%

211Tl

mass number211
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
210.993475 ± 0.000045 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
81 ± 16 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1998
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.2%

212Tl

mass number212
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
211.998335 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31 ± 8 s
Volubilitas5
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1998
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.8%

213Tl

mass number213
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
213.001915 ± 0.000029 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23.8 ± 4.4 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.6%

214Tl

mass number214
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
214.00694 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11 ± 2.4 s
Volubilitas5
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)34%

215Tl

mass number215
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
215.010768 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.7 ± 3.8 s
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4.6%

216Tl

mass number216
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
216.015964 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.9 ± 3.3 s
Volubilitas5
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)11.5%

217Tl

mass number217
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
217.020032 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

218Tl

mass number218
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
218.025454 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas6
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Thallium pieces in ampoule
Thallium-croprotated

historia

inventorSir William Crookes
location of discoveryEngland
repertus1861
EtymologiaGreek: thallos (green twig), for a bright green line in its spectrum.
pronunciationTHAL-i-em (English)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.85 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oceanus)
0.000019 mg/L
natural abundance (Corpus humanum)
natural abundance (Meteoroides)
0.0000078 %
natural abundance (Sol)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5591
2p4.5138
2s21.3158
3d13.4658
3p22.6335
3s23.5809
4d37.6112
4f38.1324
4p35.7832
4s34.9212
5d58.975
5p53.9115
5s51.878
6p68.7462
6s68.1804