Talium

Talium (Tl)

chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81
Atomic Number81
Atomic Weight204.38
Nombor jisim205
Group13
Period6
Blockp
proton81 p+
neutron124 n0
Elektron81 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Tl (Talium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
190 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
144 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
150 pm
Crystal Radius
164 pm
Jejari van der Waals
196 pm
ketumpatan
11.8 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Talium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
6.108287 eV/particle
ionization energy of Tl (Talium)
Entalpi pengewapan
162.4 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
4.31 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
182.2 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Model Bohr: Tl (Talium)
Elektron valens3
Teori ion Lewis: Tl (Talium)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Enhanced Model Bohr of Tl (Talium)
Orbital Diagram of Tl (Talium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-5, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.8
Electrophilicity Index
0.9173102715055317 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
1,746.15 K
Melting Point
577.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery white
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
46.1 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.0000299 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
6.7 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000015 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
2.38 K
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000613 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000356
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.46 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
1.2 MPa
Modulus pukal
43 GPa
shear modulus
2.8 GPa
Young's modulus
8 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.45
Kelajuan bunyi
818 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number81
Mendeleev Number85
Pettifor Number78
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
3.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00059
Nombor kuantum2P1/2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Thallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes41
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition20570.49%20570.49%20329.52%20329.52%

176Tl

Nombor jisim176
nombor neutron95
jisim atom relatif
176.000627731 ± 0.000089166 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.2 ± 2.3 ms
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2004
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Tl

Nombor jisim177
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
176.996414252 ± 0.000023218 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
18 ± 5 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1999
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)73%
p (proton emission)

178Tl

Nombor jisim178
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
177.995047 ± 0.00011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
255 ± 9 ms
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)62%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)38%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.15%

179Tl

Nombor jisim179
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
178.991122185 ± 0.000041495 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
437 ± 9 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1983
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)60%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

180Tl

Nombor jisim180
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
179.98991895 ± 0.000075058 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.09 ± 0.01 s
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1987
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
α (α emission)7%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.0032%

181Tl

Nombor jisim181
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
180.986259978 ± 0.000009771 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.9 ± 0.1 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1996
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)8.6%

182Tl

Nombor jisim182
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
181.985692649 ± 0.000012856 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.9 ± 0.1 s
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1991
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.49%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)3.4%

183Tl

Nombor jisim183
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
182.982192843 ± 0.000010017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.9 ± 0.7 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1980
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)

184Tl

Nombor jisim184
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
183.981874973 ± 0.000010747 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.5 ± 0.2 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1976
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.78%
α (α emission)1.22%

185Tl

Nombor jisim185
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
184.978789189 ± 0.000022194 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
19.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1976
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

186Tl

Nombor jisim186
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
185.978654787 ± 0.000022276 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1975
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)

187Tl

Nombor jisim187
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
186.97590474 ± 0.00000864 Da
g-factor
3.08 ± 0.12
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1976
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Tl

Nombor jisim188
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
187.976020886 ± 0.000032103 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
71 ± 2 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1970
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Tl

Nombor jisim189
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
188.973573525 ± 0.000008983 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1972
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

190Tl

Nombor jisim190
nombor neutron109
jisim atom relatif
189.973841771 ± 0.000007784 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.6 ± 0.3 m
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1970
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

191Tl

Nombor jisim191
nombor neutron110
jisim atom relatif
190.971784093 ± 0.000007889 Da
g-factor
3.164 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1974
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

192Tl

Nombor jisim192
nombor neutron111
jisim atom relatif
191.972225 ± 0.000034 Da
g-factor
0.0995 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.6 ± 0.4 m
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1961
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Tl

Nombor jisim193
nombor neutron112
jisim atom relatif
192.970501994 ± 0.0000072 Da
g-factor
3.17 ± 0.006
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.6 ± 0.8 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1960
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

194Tl

Nombor jisim194
nombor neutron113
jisim atom relatif
193.971081408 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0.0695 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
33 ± 0.5 m
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.282 ± 0.007
tarikh penemuan1960
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

195Tl

Nombor jisim195
nombor neutron114
jisim atom relatif
194.969774052 ± 0.000011944 Da
g-factor
3.14 ± 0.08
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.16 ± 0.05 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

196Tl

Nombor jisim196
nombor neutron115
jisim atom relatif
195.970481189 ± 0.000013 Da
g-factor
0.036 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.84 ± 0.03 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.178 ± 0.014
tarikh penemuan1955
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

197Tl

Nombor jisim197
nombor neutron116
jisim atom relatif
196.969560492 ± 0.000014573 Da
g-factor
3.14 ± 0.04
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.84 ± 0.04 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

198Tl

Nombor jisim198
nombor neutron117
jisim atom relatif
197.970446669 ± 0.0000081 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0.005
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.3 ± 0.5 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

199Tl

Nombor jisim199
nombor neutron118
jisim atom relatif
198.969877 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
3.18 ± 0.04
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.42 ± 0.08 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1949
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

200Tl

Nombor jisim200
nombor neutron119
jisim atom relatif
199.970963608 ± 0.000006182 Da
g-factor
0.02 ± 0.005
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
26.1 ± 0.1 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

201Tl

Nombor jisim201
nombor neutron120
jisim atom relatif
200.970820235 ± 0.000015228 Da
g-factor
3.198 ± 0.006
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.0421 ± 0.0008 d
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

202Tl

Nombor jisim202
nombor neutron121
jisim atom relatif
201.972108874 ± 0.000001972 Da
g-factor
0.03 ± 0.005
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.31 ± 0.08 d
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1940
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

203Tl

Nombor jisim203
nombor neutron122
jisim atom relatif
202.972344098 ± 0.000001257 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
29.515 ± 0.044
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

204Tl

Nombor jisim204
nombor neutron123
jisim atom relatif
203.97386342 ± 0.000001238 Da
g-factor
0.045 ± 0.005
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.783 ± 0.012 y
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1953
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)97.08%
EC+B+2.92%

205Tl

Nombor jisim205
nombor neutron124
jisim atom relatif
204.974427318 ± 0.00000133 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
70.485 ± 0.044
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1931
parity+

206Tl

Nombor jisim206
nombor neutron125
jisim atom relatif
205.976110108 ± 0.00000138 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.202 ± 0.011 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1935
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

207Tl

Nombor jisim207
nombor neutron126
jisim atom relatif
206.977418605 ± 0.000005839 Da
g-factor
3.738 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.77 ± 0.02 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1908
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

208Tl

Nombor jisim208
nombor neutron127
jisim atom relatif
207.982018006 ± 0.000001989 Da
g-factor
0.0582 ± 0.0026
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.053 ± 0.004 m
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1909
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

209Tl

Nombor jisim209
nombor neutron128
jisim atom relatif
208.985351713 ± 0.000006559 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.162 ± 0.007 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Tl

Nombor jisim210
nombor neutron129
jisim atom relatif
209.990072942 ± 0.000012456 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.3 ± 0.03 m
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1909
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.009%

211Tl

Nombor jisim211
nombor neutron130
jisim atom relatif
210.993475 ± 0.000045 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
81 ± 16 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1998
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.2%

212Tl

Nombor jisim212
nombor neutron131
jisim atom relatif
211.998335 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
31 ± 8 s
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1998
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.8%

213Tl

Nombor jisim213
nombor neutron132
jisim atom relatif
213.001915 ± 0.000029 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
23.8 ± 4.4 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.6%

214Tl

Nombor jisim214
nombor neutron133
jisim atom relatif
214.00694 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
11 ± 2.4 s
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)34%

215Tl

Nombor jisim215
nombor neutron134
jisim atom relatif
215.010768 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.7 ± 3.8 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4.6%

216Tl

Nombor jisim216
nombor neutron135
jisim atom relatif
216.015964 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.9 ± 3.3 s
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)11.5%

217Tl

Nombor jisim217
nombor neutron136
jisim atom relatif
217.020032 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

218Tl

Nombor jisim218
nombor neutron137
jisim atom relatif
218.025454 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Thallium pieces in ampoule
Thallium-croprotated

sejarah

penemu atau perekaSir William Crookes
tempat penemuanEngland
tarikh penemuan1861
EtimologiGreek: thallos (green twig), for a bright green line in its spectrum.
sebutanTHAL-i-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.85 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.000019 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.0000078 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5591
2p4.5138
2s21.3158
3d13.4658
3p22.6335
3s23.5809
4d37.6112
4f38.1324
4p35.7832
4s34.9212
5d58.975
5p53.9115
5s51.878
6p68.7462
6s68.1804