Tulium

Tulium (Tm)

chemical element with the atomic number of 69
Atomic Number69
Atomic Weight168.93422
Nombor jisim169
Group
Period6
Blockf
proton69 p+
neutron100 n0
Elektron69 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Tm (Tulium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
175 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
164 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
103 pm
Crystal Radius
117 pm
Jejari van der Waals
227 pm
ketumpatan
9.321 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Tulium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
6.18431 eV/particle
ionization energy of Tm (Tulium)
Entalpi pengewapan
232 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
standard enthalpy of formation
232.2 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Model Bohr: Tm (Tulium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Tm (Tulium)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f13 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f13 6s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Tm (Tulium)
Orbital Diagram of Tm (Tulium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.25
Electrophilicity Index
1.2616079623752015 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2,223.15 K
Melting Point
1,818.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery gray
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000133 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
1.4 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.0000007 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000199 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000336179 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0185488
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
25 K
Néel temperature
56 K
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.54 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
Modulus pukal
45 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
74 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.21
Kelajuan bunyi
pengelasan
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number20
Mendeleev Number37
Pettifor Number22
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
144 ± 15 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
105
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.025
Nombor kuantum2F7/2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Thulium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes38
Natural Isotopes1

144Tm

Nombor jisim144
nombor neutron75
jisim atom relatif
143.976211 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.3 ± 0.9 us
Spin10
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2005
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

145Tm

Nombor jisim145
nombor neutron76
jisim atom relatif
144.970389 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.17 ± 0.2 us
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1998
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%

146Tm

Nombor jisim146
nombor neutron77
jisim atom relatif
145.966661 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
155 ± 20 ms
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1993
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

147Tm

Nombor jisim147
nombor neutron78
jisim atom relatif
146.961379887 ± 0.000007341 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
580 ± 30 ms
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)85%
p (proton emission)15%

148Tm

Nombor jisim148
nombor neutron79
jisim atom relatif
147.958384026 ± 0.000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
700 ± 200 ms
Spin10
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

149Tm

Nombor jisim149
nombor neutron80
jisim atom relatif
148.952828 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
900 ± 200 ms
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1987
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.26%

150Tm

Nombor jisim150
nombor neutron81
jisim atom relatif
149.95009 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

151Tm

Nombor jisim151
nombor neutron82
jisim atom relatif
150.945494433 ± 0.000020799 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.17 ± 0.11 s
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

152Tm

Nombor jisim152
nombor neutron83
jisim atom relatif
151.944476 ± 0.000058 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8 ± 1 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1980
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

153Tm

Nombor jisim153
nombor neutron84
jisim atom relatif
152.942058023 ± 0.00001286 Da
g-factor
1.26 ± 0.02
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.48 ± 0.01 s
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.5 ± 1
tarikh penemuan1964
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)91%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)9%

154Tm

Nombor jisim154
nombor neutron85
jisim atom relatif
153.941570062 ± 0.000015471 Da
g-factor
-0.57 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.1 ± 0.3 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.4 ± 0.9
tarikh penemuan1964
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)54%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)46%

155Tm

Nombor jisim155
nombor neutron86
jisim atom relatif
154.939209576 ± 0.000010651 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.6 ± 0.2 s
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1971
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.17%
α (α emission)0.83%

156Tm

Nombor jisim156
nombor neutron87
jisim atom relatif
155.938985746 ± 0.000015328 Da
g-factor
0.2 ± 0.015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
83.8 ± 1.8 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.48 ± 0.11
tarikh penemuan1971
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.064%

157Tm

Nombor jisim157
nombor neutron88
jisim atom relatif
156.936973 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0.952 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.63 ± 0.09 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1974
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)7.5%

158Tm

Nombor jisim158
nombor neutron89
jisim atom relatif
157.936979525 ± 0.000027074 Da
g-factor
0.02 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.98 ± 0.06 m
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.74 ± 0.11
tarikh penemuan1970
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

159Tm

Nombor jisim159
nombor neutron90
jisim atom relatif
158.934975 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
1.368 ± 0.012
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.13 ± 0.16 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.93 ± 0.07
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

160Tm

Nombor jisim160
nombor neutron91
jisim atom relatif
159.935264177 ± 0.000035089 Da
g-factor
0.16 ± 0.02
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.4 ± 0.3 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.58 ± 0.04
tarikh penemuan1970
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

161Tm

Nombor jisim161
nombor neutron92
jisim atom relatif
160.933549 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0.68571428571429 ± 0.0057142857142857
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
30.2 ± 0.8 m
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2.9 ± 0.07
tarikh penemuan1959
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

162Tm

Nombor jisim162
nombor neutron93
jisim atom relatif
161.934001211 ± 0.000027974 Da
g-factor
0.068 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.7 ± 0.19 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.69 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1963
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

163Tm

Nombor jisim163
nombor neutron94
jisim atom relatif
162.932658282 ± 0.00000592 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.81 ± 0.005 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1959
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

164Tm

Nombor jisim164
nombor neutron95
jisim atom relatif
163.933538019 ± 0.000026845 Da
g-factor
2.37 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2 ± 0.1 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.71 ± 0.05
tarikh penemuan1960
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)61%
e+ (positron emission)39%

165Tm

Nombor jisim165
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
164.932441843 ± 0.000001779 Da
g-factor
-0.278 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
30.06 ± 0.03 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Tm

Nombor jisim166
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
165.933562136 ± 0.000012401 Da
g-factor
0.0463 ± 0.00035
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.7 ± 0.03 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2.14 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Tm

Nombor jisim167
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
166.932857206 ± 0.00000135 Da
g-factor
-0.394 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.25 ± 0.02 d
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

168Tm

Nombor jisim168
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
167.934178457 ± 0.0000018 Da
g-factor
0.075666666666667 ± 0.0036666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
93.1 ± 0.2 d
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.23 ± 0.07
tarikh penemuan1949
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β (β decay)0.01%

169Tm

Nombor jisim169
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
168.934218956 ± 0.000000792 Da
g-factor
-0.462 ± 0.003
natural abundance
100
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

170Tm

Nombor jisim170
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
169.935807093 ± 0.000000785 Da
g-factor
0.247 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
128.6 ± 0.3 d
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.74 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1936
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)99.869%
ϵ (electron capture)0.131%

171Tm

Nombor jisim171
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
170.936435162 ± 0.000001043 Da
g-factor
-0.46 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.92 ± 0.01 y
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

172Tm

Nombor jisim172
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
171.938406959 ± 0.000005884 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
63.6 ± 0.3 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1956
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

173Tm

Nombor jisim173
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
172.93960663 ± 0.000004723 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.24 ± 0.08 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

174Tm

Nombor jisim174
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
173.942174061 ± 0.00004801 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.4 ± 0.1 m
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1960
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

175Tm

Nombor jisim175
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
174.94384231 ± 0.000053677 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15.2 ± 0.5 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

176Tm

Nombor jisim176
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
175.946997707 ± 0.000107354 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.85 ± 0.03 m
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

177Tm

Nombor jisim177
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
176.948932 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
95 ± 7 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1989
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

178Tm

Nombor jisim178
nombor neutron109
jisim atom relatif
177.952506 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2008
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

179Tm

Nombor jisim179
nombor neutron110
jisim atom relatif
178.955018 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2012
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

180Tm

Nombor jisim180
nombor neutron111
jisim atom relatif
179.959023 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2012
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

181Tm

Nombor jisim181
nombor neutron112
jisim atom relatif
180.961954 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2012
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

182Tm

Nombor jisim182
nombor neutron113
jisim atom relatif
181.966194 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube

sejarah

penemu atau perekaPer Theodor Cleve
tempat penemuanSweden
tarikh penemuan1879
EtimologiFrom Thule ancient name of Scandinavia.
sebutanTHOO-li-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.52 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.00000017 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.0000029 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.00000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3437
2p4.3588
2s18.0522
3d13.6257
3p20.5239
3s21.0816
4d36.056
4f40.366
4p33.012
4s31.8624
5p51.272
5s48.963
6s60.4158