Tungsten

Tungsten (W)

White or grey metallic transition element,formerly called Wolfram. Forms a protective oxide in air and can be oxidized at high temperature. First isolated by Jose and Fausto de Elhuyer in 1783.
Atomic Number74
Atomic Weight183.84
Mass Number184
Group6
Period6
Blockd
Protons74 p+
Neutrons110 n0
Electrons74 e-
Wolfram evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
137 pm
Metallic Radius
130 pm
Ionic Radius
66 pm
Crystal Radius
80 pm
Van der Waals radius
218.00000000000003 pm
Density
19.3 g/cm³
Boiling Point
5,930 K
Melting Point
3,680 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Electronegativity
1.7
Electrophilicity
1.3363701299152 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.81626 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
7.86403 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
824 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
851 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
24.27 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.132 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
68 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.16 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIA
IUPAC GroupVIB
Glawe Number57
Mendeleev Number53
Pettifor Number56
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.25 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0001 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe5×10-8%

Isotopes of Tungsten

Stable Isotopes
180W 182W 183W 184W 186W
Unstable Isotopes
158W 159W 160W 161W 162W 163W 164W 165W 166W 167W 168W 169W 170W 171W 172W 173W 174W 175W 176W 177W 178W 179W 181W 185W 187W 188W 189W 190W 191W 192W

History

Torbern Bergman obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element in 1781. In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element. From Swedish, tung sten meaning heavy stone

DiscoverersFausto and Juan José de Elhuyar
Discovery LocationSpain
Discovery Year1783
Name OriginSwedish: tung sten (heavy stone): symbol from its German name wolfram.
Tungsten is considered to be of low toxicity
The chemical symbol, W, comes from the original name of the element, Wolfram

Uses

Tungsten and its alloys are widely used for filaments in electric bulbs and electronic tubes. Tungsten carbide is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries. Tungsten oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting. Made into filaments for vacuum tubes and electric lights. Also as contact points in cars. Combined with calcium or magnesium it makes phosphors. Tungsten carbide is extremely hard and is used for making cutting tools and abrasives.

Sources

Occurs in the minerals scheelite (CaWO4) and wolframite [(Fe,Mn)WO4].