Tungsten

Tungsten (W)

White or grey metallic transition element,formerly called Wolfram. Forms a protective oxide in air and can be oxidized at high temperature. First isolated by Jose and Fausto de Elhuyer in 1783.
Atomic Number74
Atomic Weight183.84
Mass Number184
Group6
Period6
Blockd
Protons74 p+
Neutrons110 n0
Electrons74 e-
Wolfram evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of W (Tungsten) Enhanced Bohr Model of W (Tungsten) Bohr Model: W (Tungsten) Orbital Diagram of W (Tungsten)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
137 pm
Metallic Radius
130 pm
Ionic Radius
66 pm
Crystal Radius
80 pm
Van der Waals Radius
218 pm
Density
19.3 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.81626 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.86403 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
824 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
851 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Oxidation States-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
1.7
Electrophilicity
1.336370129915207 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
5,828.15 K
Melting Point
3,687.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancegrayish white, lustrous
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000045 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.27 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.132 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
20 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000004999999999997 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.015 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000000459 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000844 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000884
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.16 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
7.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
310 GPa
Shear Modulus
161 GPa
Young Modulus
411 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.28
Speed of Sound
5,174 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIA
IUPAC GroupVIB
Glawe Number57
Mendeleev Number53
Pettifor Number56
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
68 ± 15 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
18.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0036
Quantum Numbers5D0
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Tungsten

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes36
Radioactive Isotopes37

157W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.978862 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
Half Life
275 ± 40 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

157W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0%

158W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
157.974565 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.43 ± 0.18 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

158W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

159W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.972696 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
Half Life
8.2 ± 0.7 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

159W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

160W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.968513946 ± 0.000160828 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
90 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

160W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)87%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

161W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.967249 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
Half Life
409 ± 16 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

161W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)73%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)27%

162W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.963500341 ± 0.000018955 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.19 ± 0.12 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

162W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)45.2%

163W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.962524251 ± 0.000062722 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
Half Life
2.63 ± 0.09 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

163W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)14%

164W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
163.958952445 ± 0.000010384 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.3 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

164W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)96.2%
α (α emission)3.8%

165W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.958280663 ± 0.000027649 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
Half Life
5.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

165W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

166W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.955031952 ± 0.000010159 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
19.2 ± 0.6 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

166W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.965%
α (α emission)0.035%

167W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.95481108 ± 0.000020078 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
Half Life
19.9 ± 0.5 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

167W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.96%
α (α emission)0.04%

168W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.951805459 ± 0.000014233 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
50.9 ± 1.9 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

168W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0032%

169W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.951778689 ± 0.000016571 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
Half Life
74 ± 6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

169W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.949231235 ± 0.000014165 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.42 ± 0.04 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

170W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

171W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.949451 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
2.38 ± 0.04 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

171W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.947292 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.6 ± 0.9 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

172W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

173W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.947689 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
7.6 ± 0.2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

173W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.946079 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
33.2 ± 2.1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

174W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

175W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.946717 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
35.2 ± 0.6 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

175W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

176W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.945634 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.5 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

176W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

177W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.946643 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
Half Life
132.4 ± 2 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

177W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

178W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.945885791 ± 0.000016316 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
21.6 ± 0.3 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

178W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

179W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.947079378 ± 0.000015644 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
Half Life
37.05 ± 0.16 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

179W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

180W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
0.12 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
179.946713304 ± 0.000001545 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.59 ± 0.5 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

180W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

181W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.948218733 ± 0.000001554 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
Half Life
120.956 ± 0.019 d
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

181W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

182W

Abundance
26.5 ± 0.16
Relative Atomic Mass
181.948205636 ± 0.000000799 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1930
Parity+

182W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

183W

Abundance
14.31 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
182.950224416 ± 0.000000798 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1930
Parity-

183W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

184W

Abundance
30.64 ± 0.02
Relative Atomic Mass
183.95093318 ± 0.000000792 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1930
Parity+

184W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

185W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.953421206 ± 0.000000793 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
0.362 ± 0.0093333333333333
Half Life
75.1 ± 0.3 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

185W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

186W

Abundance
28.43 ± 0.19
Relative Atomic Mass
185.95436514 ± 0.000001302 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1930
Parity+

186W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

187W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.957161249 ± 0.000001302 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
0.414 ± 0.01
Half Life
23.809 ± 0.025 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

187W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

188W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.958488325 ± 0.000003316 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
0
Half Life
69.77 ± 0.05 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

188W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

189W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.961557 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
Half Life
11.6 ± 0.2 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

189W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

190W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.963103542 ± 0.000037993 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
0
Half Life
30 ± 1.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

190W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

191W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.966531 ± 0.000045 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity-

191W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

192W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.968202 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

192W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

193W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.971884 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

193W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

194W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.973795 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2008
Parity+

194W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

195W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.977735 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

195W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

196W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
195.979882 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

196W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

197W

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.984036 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

197W Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

Torbern Bergman obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element in 1781. In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element. From Swedish, tung sten meaning heavy stone

DiscoverersFausto and Juan José de Elhuyar
Discovery LocationSpain
Discovery Year1783
Etymology (Name Origin)Swedish: tung sten (heavy stone): symbol from its German name wolfram.
PronunciationTUNG-sten (English)
Tungsten is considered to be of low toxicity
The chemical symbol, W, comes from the original name of the element, Wolfram

Uses

Tungsten and its alloys are widely used for filaments in electric bulbs and electronic tubes. Tungsten carbide is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries. Tungsten oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting. Made into filaments for vacuum tubes and electric lights. Also as contact points in cars. Combined with calcium or magnesium it makes phosphors. Tungsten carbide is extremely hard and is used for making cutting tools and abrasives.

Sources

Occurs in the minerals scheelite (CaWO4) and wolframite [(Fe,Mn)WO4].

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1.25 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0001 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000012 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.4343
2p4.4258
2s19.3302
3d13.5476
3p21.3824
3s22.13
4d36.8268
4f39.2892
4p34.4516
4s33.4412
5d57.258
5p52.6745
5s50.4585
6s64.1456