Xenon

Xenon (Xe)

Colourless, odourless gas belonging to group 18 on the periodic table (the noble gases.) Nine natural isotopes and seven radioactive isotopes are known. Xenon was part of the first noble-gas compound synthesized. Several others involving Xenon have been found since then. Xenon was discovered by Ramsey and Travers in 1898.
Atomic Number54
Atomic Weight131.293
Mass Number132
Group18
Period5
Blockp
Protons54 p+
Neutrons78 n0
Electrons54 e-
Xenon discharge tube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
131 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
40 pm
Crystal Radius
54 pm
Van der Waals radius
216 pm
Density
0.005366 g/cm³
Boiling Point
166.1 K
Melting Point
161.3 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Electronegativity
2.6
Electrophilicity
1.4953590614036 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
499.6 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
12.1298431 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
12.65 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Molar Heat Capacity
20.786 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.158 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
0.0057 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
478.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
27.32 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States2, 4, 6, 8
Color
Colorless
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
6.2 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseGas
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryNoble gases, Noble gases
CAS GroupVIII
IUPAC GroupVIIIA
Glawe Number5
Mendeleev Number116
Pettifor Number5
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00003 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00005 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%

Isotopes of Xenon

Stable Isotopes
124Xe 126Xe 128Xe 129Xe 130Xe 131Xe 132Xe 134Xe 136Xe
Unstable Isotopes
110Xe 111Xe 112Xe 113Xe 114Xe 115Xe 116Xe 117Xe 118Xe 119Xe 120Xe 121Xe 122Xe 123Xe 125Xe 127Xe 133Xe 135Xe 137Xe 138Xe 139Xe 140Xe 141Xe 142Xe 143Xe 144Xe 145Xe 146Xe 147Xe

History

Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Spectroscopic analysis showed the previously unseen beautiful blue lines that indicated the presence of a new element. From the Greek word xenon, stranger

DiscoverersSir William Ramsay; M. W. Travers
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1898
Name OriginGreek: xenos (strange).
Xenon is not toxic, but its compounds are highly toxic
If inhaled, xenon can cause a person's voice to deepen

Uses

Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and in photographic flashes. Xenon is used in medicine as a general anesthetic and in medical imaging. In nuclear energy applications, xenon is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is desirable. Used for filling flash lamps and other powerful lamps. Electrical excitation of xenon produces a burst of brilliant whtie light. Also used in bubble chambers and modern nuclear power reactors.

Sources

Obtain from the small quantities in liquid air.