Yttrium

Yttrium (Y)

Silvery-grey metallic element of group 3 on the periodic table. Found in uranium ores. The only natural isotope is Y-89, there are 14 other artificial isotopes. Chemically resembles the lanthanoids. Stable in the air below 400 degrees, celsius. Discovered in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler.
Atomic Number39
Atomic Weight88.90584
Mass Number89
Group3
Period5
Blockd
Protons39 p+
Neutrons50 n0
Electrons39 e-
Yttrium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Y (Yttrium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Y (Yttrium) Bohr Model: Y (Yttrium) Orbital Diagram of Y (Yttrium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
163 pm
Metallic Radius
162 pm
Ionic Radius
90 pm
Crystal Radius
104 pm
Van der Waals Radius
232 pm
Density
4.47 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
967 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.21726 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
367 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
11.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
424.7 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1.22
Electrophilicity
0.9002558378903806 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,618.15 K
Melting Point
1,795.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000106 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.53 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.298 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.8 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000057 m Ω
Superconducting Point
1.3 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000666 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000005921 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0002978
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.65 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
41 GPa
Shear Modulus
26 GPa
Young Modulus
64 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.24
Speed of Sound
3,300 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number21
Mendeleev Number12
Pettifor Number19
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
945.9 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
162 ± 12 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
1.28
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00059
Quantum Numbers2D3/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Yttrium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes34
Radioactive Isotopes34

75Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
74.96584 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number75
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

75Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%
p (proton emission)%

76Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
75.958937 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number76
G-Factor
Half Life
28 ± 9 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2001
Parity-

76Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
p (proton emission)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

77Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
76.950146 ± 0.000218 Da
Mass Number77
G-Factor
Half Life
63 ± 17 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

77Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%
p (proton emission)%

78Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
77.94399 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number78
G-Factor
0
Half Life
54 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

78Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

79Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
78.937946 ± 0.000086 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
Half Life
14.8 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

79Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

80Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
79.93435475 ± 0.000006701 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
Half Life
30.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

80Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

81Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
80.929454283 ± 0.000005802 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
70.4 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

81Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

82Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.926930189 ± 0.000005902 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
Half Life
8.3 ± 0.2 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

82Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

83Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
82.922484026 ± 0.00002 Da
Mass Number83
G-Factor
Half Life
7.08 ± 0.08 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

83Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

84Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
83.92067106 ± 0.000004615 Da
Mass Number84
G-Factor
Half Life
39.5 ± 0.8 m
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

84Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

85Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
84.916433039 ± 0.00002036 Da
Mass Number85
G-Factor
Half Life
2.68 ± 0.05 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity

85Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

86Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
85.914886095 ± 0.000015182 Da
Mass Number86
G-Factor
Half Life
14.74 ± 0.02 h
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

86Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

87Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
86.9108761 ± 0.00000121 Da
Mass Number87
G-Factor
-0.38 ± 0.04
Half Life
79.8 ± 0.3 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

87Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

88Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
87.909501274 ± 0.00000161 Da
Mass Number88
G-Factor
-0.105 ± 0.0025
Half Life
106.629 ± 0.024 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
0.16 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

88Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

89Y

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
88.905838156 ± 0.000000363 Da
Mass Number89
G-Factor
-0.274596 ± 0.00001
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

90Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
89.907141749 ± 0.000000379 Da
Mass Number90
G-Factor
-0.814 ± 0.004
Half Life
64.05 ± 0.05 h
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.125 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

90Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

91Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
90.907298048 ± 0.000001978 Da
Mass Number91
G-Factor
0.3278 ± 0.0016
Half Life
58.51 ± 0.06 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

91Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

92Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
91.908945752 ± 0.000009798 Da
Mass Number92
G-Factor
-0.335 ± 0.01
Half Life
3.54 ± 0.01 h
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

92Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

93Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
92.909578434 ± 0.000011259 Da
Mass Number93
G-Factor
Half Life
10.18 ± 0.08 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

93Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

94Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
93.911592062 ± 0.000006849 Da
Mass Number94
G-Factor
-0.12 ± 0.01
Half Life
18.7 ± 0.1 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.03 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

94Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

95Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
94.912819697 ± 0.000007277 Da
Mass Number95
G-Factor
-0.32 ± 0.06
Half Life
10.3 ± 0.1 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1959
Parity-

95Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

96Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
95.915909305 ± 0.000006521 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.34 ± 0.05 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

96Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

97Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.918286702 ± 0.000007201 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
-0.24 ± 0.02
Half Life
3.75 ± 0.03 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

97Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.055%

98Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.922394841 ± 0.000008501 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
0
Half Life
548 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

98Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.33%

99Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.924160839 ± 0.000007101 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
1.272 ± 0.008
Half Life
1.484 ± 0.007 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.55 ± 0.17
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

99Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.77%

100Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.927727678 ± 0.000012 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
0.6875 ± 0.0025
Half Life
940 ± 30 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

100Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

101Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.930160817 ± 0.000007601 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
1.288 ± 0.008
Half Life
426 ± 20 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.53 ± 0.17
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

101Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.3%

102Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.934328471 ± 0.000004381 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
Half Life
360 ± 40 ms
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

102Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.6%

103Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.937243796 ± 0.000012029 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
Half Life
239 ± 12 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

103Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)8%

104Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.941943 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0
Half Life
197 ± 4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

104Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)34%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

105Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.945711 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
95 ± 9 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

105Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)82%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

106Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.950842 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
Half Life
75 ± 6 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

106Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

107Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.954943 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
33.5 ± 0.3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

107Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

108Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.960515 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
Half Life
30 ± 5 ms
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

108Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

109Y

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.965131 ± 0.000751 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
25 ± 5 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

109Y Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler. Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden near Vauxholm

DiscoverersJohann Gadolin
Discovery LocationFinland
Discovery Year1789
Etymology (Name Origin)From the Swedish village, Ytterby, where one of its minerals was first found.
PronunciationIT-ri-em (English)
Exposure to yttrium compounds in humans may cause lung disease
Finely divided yttrium is very unstable in air

Uses

Yttrium is often used in alloys, increasing the strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Yttrium is one of the elements used to make the red color in CRT televisions. It is also used as a deoxidizer for non-ferrous metals such as vanadium. Yttrium can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. Combined with europium to make red phosphors for color TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar.

Sources

Found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime, and yttria.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.000013 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.00019 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.8244
2p3.9968
2s10.3778
3d13.6029
3p15.9075
3s15.4485
4d23.0416
4p26.2544
4s24.7364
5s32.744