Yttrium

Yttrium (Y)

Silvery-grey metallic element of group 3 on the periodic table. Found in uranium ores. The only natural isotope is Y-89, there are 14 other artificial isotopes. Chemically resembles the lanthanoids. Stable in the air below 400 degrees, celsius. Discovered in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler.
Atomic Number39
Atomic Weight88.90584
Mass Number89
Group3
Period5
Blockd
Protons39 p+
Neutrons50 n0
Electrons39 e-
Yttrium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
163 pm
Metallic Radius
162 pm
Ionic Radius
90 pm
Crystal Radius
104 pm
Van der Waals radius
231.99999999999997 pm
Density
4.47 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,611 K
Melting Point
1,795 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Electronegativity
1.22
Electrophilicity
0.9002558378904 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
967 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
6.21726 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
367 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
11.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
424.7 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.53 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.298 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
945.9 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
162 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.65 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number21
Mendeleev Number12
Pettifor Number19
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.000013 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe7×10-7%

Isotopes of Yttrium

Stable Isotopes
89Y
Unstable Isotopes
76Y 77Y 78Y 79Y 80Y 81Y 82Y 83Y 84Y 85Y 86Y 87Y 88Y 90Y 91Y 92Y 93Y 94Y 95Y 96Y 97Y 98Y 99Y 100Y 101Y 102Y 103Y 104Y 105Y 106Y 107Y 108Y

History

In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler. Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden near Vauxholm

DiscoverersJohann Gadolin
Discovery LocationFinland
Discovery Year1789
Name OriginFrom the Swedish village, Ytterby, where one of its minerals was first found.
Exposure to yttrium compounds in humans may cause lung disease
Finely divided yttrium is very unstable in air

Uses

Yttrium is often used in alloys, increasing the strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Yttrium is one of the elements used to make the red color in CRT televisions. It is also used as a deoxidizer for non-ferrous metals such as vanadium. Yttrium can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. Combined with europium to make red phosphors for color TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar.

Sources

Found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime, and yttria.