Zirconium

Zirconium (Zr)

Grey-white metallic transition element. Five natural isotopes and six radioactive isotopes are known. Used in nuclear reactors for a Neutron absorber. Discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, isolated in 1824 by Berzelius.
Atomic Number40
Atomic Weight91.224
Mass Number90
Group4
Period5
Blockd
Protons40 p+
Neutrons50 n0
Electrons40 e-
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
155 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
154 pm
Metallic Radius
145 pm
Ionic Radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals radius
223 pm
Density
6.52 g/cm³
Boiling Point
4,650 K
Melting Point
2,125 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electronegativity
1.33
Electrophilicity
1.0036040369932 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
567 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
19.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
610 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.36 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.278 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
22.7 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
112 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.23 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number49
Mendeleev Number44
Pettifor Number49
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
165 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe5×10-6%

Isotopes of Zirconium

Stable Isotopes
90Zr 91Zr 92Zr 94Zr 96Zr
Unstable Isotopes
78Zr 79Zr 80Zr 81Zr 82Zr 83Zr 84Zr 85Zr 86Zr 87Zr 88Zr 89Zr 93Zr 95Zr 97Zr 98Zr 99Zr 100Zr 101Zr 102Zr 103Zr 104Zr 105Zr 106Zr 107Zr 108Zr 109Zr 110Zr

History

Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka. Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube. Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925. From the Persian zargun, gold like

DiscoverersMartin Klaproth
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1789
Name OriginFrom the mineral, zircon.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia

Uses

Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent. Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets. Used in alloys such as zircaloy which is used in nuclear applications since it does not readily absorb neutrons. Also baddeleyite is used in lab crucibles. Used in high-performance pumps and valves. Clear zircon (ZrSiO4) is a popular gemstone.

Sources

Found in many minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite.