Zirconium

Zirconium (Zr)

Zirconium is the 40th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Zr and atomic number of 40. It has an atomic weight of 91.224 and a mass number of 90. Zirconium has forty protons and fifty neutrons in its nucleus, and forty electrons in five shells. It is located in group four, period five and block d of the periodic table. Grey-white metallic transition element. Five natural isotopes and six radioactive isotopes are known. Used in nuclear reactors for a Neutron absorber. Discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, isolated in 1824 by Berzelius.
Atomic Number40
Atomic Weight91.224
Mass Number90
Group4
Period5
Blockd
Protons40 p+
Neutrons50 n0
Electrons40 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Zr (Zirconium)

Properties

Physical Properties
Atomic Radius
155 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
154 pm
Metallic Radius
145 pm
Ionic Radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals Radius
223 pm
Density
6.52 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Ionization Energies of Zr (Zirconium)
Heat of Vaporization
567 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
19.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
610 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Bohr Model: Zr (Zirconium)
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Zr (Zirconium)
Orbital Diagram of Zr (Zirconium)
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.33
Electrophilicity
1.0036040369931862 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
4,679.15 K
Melting Point
2,127.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Zirconium is a Silver. Zr has a CPK of #ff1493, Jmol of #94e0e0, and MOLCAS GV of #94e0e0. The Appearance of Element 40 is silvery white.

Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
22.7 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000057 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.36 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.278 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
2.4 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000042 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.61 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000168 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000153 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.000109
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Zirconium is HEX. The lattice constant of Zr is 3.23 Å. The lattice angles of Element 40 are π/2, π/2, 2 π/3.

Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.23 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties

Zirconium has a Brinell of 650 MPa, Mohs hardness of 5 MPa, and Vickers of 903 MPa. The Shear Modulus of Zr is 33 GPa. The Young Modulus of Element 40 is 68 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Zirconium (Zr) is 0.34. The Speed of Sound of Zirconium is 3800 m/s.

Hardness
5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
33 GPa
Young Modulus
68 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.34
Speed of Sound
3,800 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Zirconium is IVA. The IUPAC Group of Zr is IVB. The Glawe Number of Element 40 is 49. The Mendeleev Number of Zirconium (Zr) is 44. The Pettifor Number of Zirconium is 49. The Geochemical Class of Zr is high field strength. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 40 is litophile.

CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number49
Mendeleev Number44
Pettifor Number49
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Zirconium is 112 plus or minus 13 a₀. Zr has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 1360 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 40 is . The Neutron Cross Section of Zirconium (Zr) is 0.184. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Zirconium is 0.00066. The Quantum Numbers of Zr is 3F2. The Space Group of Element 40 is 194 (P63/mmc).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
112 ± 13 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.184
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00066
Quantum Numbers3F2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Zirconium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes32
Radioactive Isotopes33

77Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
76.966076 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number77
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2017
Parity-

77Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%
p (proton emission)%

78Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
77.956146 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number78
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2001
Parity+

78Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

79Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
78.94979 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
Half Life
56 ± 30 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

79Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

80Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
79.941213 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.6 ± 0.6 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

80Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

81Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
80.938245 ± 0.000099 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
5.5 ± 0.4 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

81Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.12%

82Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.931707497 ± 0.0000017 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
0
Half Life
32 ± 5 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

82Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

83Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
82.929240926 ± 0.000006902 Da
Mass Number83
G-Factor
Half Life
42 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

83Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

84Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
83.923325663 ± 0.000005903 Da
Mass Number84
G-Factor
0
Half Life
25.8 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

84Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

85Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
84.921443199 ± 0.000006902 Da
Mass Number85
G-Factor
Half Life
7.86 ± 0.04 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

85Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

86Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
85.916296814 ± 0.000003827 Da
Mass Number86
G-Factor
0
Half Life
16.5 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

86Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

87Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
86.914817338 ± 0.00000445 Da
Mass Number87
G-Factor
-0.19866666666667 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
1.68 ± 0.01 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.42 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

87Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

88Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
87.910220715 ± 0.0000058 Da
Mass Number88
G-Factor
0
Half Life
83.4 ± 0.3 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

88Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

89Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
88.908879751 ± 0.000002983 Da
Mass Number89
G-Factor
-0.23222222222222 ± 0.0013333333333333
Half Life
78.36 ± 0.023 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.28 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

89Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

90Zr

Abundance
51.45 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
89.904698755 ± 0.000000126 Da
Mass Number90
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

91Zr

Abundance
11.22 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
90.905640205 ± 0.000000101 Da
Mass Number91
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.176 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

92Zr

Abundance
17.15 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
91.905035336 ± 0.000000101 Da
Mass Number92
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

93Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
92.906470661 ± 0.000000489 Da
Mass Number93
G-Factor
Half Life
1.61 ± 0.05 My
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

93Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

94Zr

Abundance
17.38 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
93.906312523 ± 0.000000175 Da
Mass Number94
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

94Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

95Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
94.908040276 ± 0.000000933 Da
Mass Number95
G-Factor
0.452 ± 0.008
Half Life
64.032 ± 0.006 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.22 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1946
Parity+

95Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

96Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
2.8 ± 0.02
Relative Atomic Mass
95.908277615 ± 0.000000122 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
0
Half Life
23.4 ± 1.7 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

96Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

97Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.910963802 ± 0.00000013 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
-1.872 ± 0.01
Half Life
16.749 ± 0.008 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

97Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

98Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.912740448 ± 0.000009065 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
0
Half Life
30.7 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

98Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

99Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.916675081 ± 0.000011271 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
-1.858 ± 0.008
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

99Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

100Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.918010499 ± 0.000008742 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
0
Half Life
7.1 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

100Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

101Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.921458454 ± 0.000008944 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
-0.18133333333333 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
2.29 ± 0.08 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.81 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

101Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

102Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.923154181 ± 0.000009401 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.01 ± 0.08 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

102Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

103Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.927204054 ± 0.0000099 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
Half Life
1.38 ± 0.07 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

103Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1%

104Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.929449193 ± 0.00001 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0
Half Life
920 ± 28 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

104Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1%

105Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.934021832 ± 0.000013 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
670 ± 28 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

105Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2%

106Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.93693 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
0
Half Life
179 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

106Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7%

107Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.942007 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
145.7 ± 2.4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

107Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)23%

108Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.945303 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0
Half Life
78.5 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

108Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

109Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.950907 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
56 ± 3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

109Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

110Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.954675 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0
Half Life
37.5 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

110Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

111Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.960837 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
Half Life
24 ± 0.5 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

111Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

112Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.965196 ± 0.000751 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
0
Half Life
43 ± 21 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

112Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

113Zr

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.971723 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

113Zr Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube

History

Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka. Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube. Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925. From the Persian zargun, gold like

DiscoverersMartin Klaproth
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1789
Etymology (Name Origin)From the mineral, zircon.
Pronunciationzer-KO-ni-em (English)
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia

Uses

Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent. Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets. Used in alloys such as zircaloy which is used in nuclear applications since it does not readily absorb neutrons. Also baddeleyite is used in lab crucibles. Used in high-performance pumps and valves. Clear zircon (ZrSiO4) is a popular gemstone.

Sources

Found in many minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
165 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.000005 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.00066 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.841
2p4.0072
2s10.6262
3d14.4331
3p16.1545
3s15.6385
4d26.9284
4p26.54
4s25.0984
5s33.5545