Kadmium

Kadmium (Cd)

chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number of 48
Atomic Number48
Atomic Weight112.414
Nombor jisim114
Group12
Period5
Blockd
proton48 p+
neutron66 n0
Elektron48 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Cd (Kadmium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
155 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
136 pm
Metallic Radius
138 pm
ionic radius
78 pm
Crystal Radius
92 pm
Jejari van der Waals
218 pm
ketumpatan
8.69 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Kadmium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
8.993822 eV/particle
ionization energy of Cd (Kadmium)
Entalpi pengewapan
59.1 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
6.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
111.8 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Model Bohr: Cd (Kadmium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Cd (Kadmium)
tatarajah elektron[Kr] 4d10 5s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10 5s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Cd (Kadmium)
Orbital Diagram of Cd (Kadmium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-2, 1, 2
Keelektronegatifan
1.69
Electrophilicity Index
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
1,040.15 K
Melting Point
594.219 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery bluish-gray metallic
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
96.9 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.0000308 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.02 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.232 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
14 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000007000000000002 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
0.517 K
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000023 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000259 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000199
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
2.98 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
2 MPa
Modulus pukal
42 GPa
shear modulus
19 GPa
Young's modulus
50 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.3
Kelajuan bunyi
2,310 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number75
Mendeleev Number78
Pettifor Number75
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
46 ± 2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,450
Neutron Mass Absorption
1.4
Nombor kuantum1S0
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Cadmium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes39
Natural Isotopes8
Isotopic Composition11428.75%11428.75%11224.11%11224.11%11012.47%11012.47%11112.80%11112.80%11312.23%11312.23%1167.51%1167.51%1061.25%1061.25%1080.89%1080.89%

94Cd

Nombor jisim94
nombor neutron46
jisim atom relatif
93.956586 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2016
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

95Cd

Nombor jisim95
nombor neutron47
jisim atom relatif
94.949483 ± 0.000607 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
32 ± 3 ms
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2011
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)4.6%

96Cd

Nombor jisim96
nombor neutron48
jisim atom relatif
95.940341 ± 0.00044 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1,003 ± 47 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2008
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%

97Cd

Nombor jisim97
nombor neutron49
jisim atom relatif
96.934799343 ± 0.000451073 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.16 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1978
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7.4%

98Cd

Nombor jisim98
nombor neutron50
jisim atom relatif
97.927389315 ± 0.000055605 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.29 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1978
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.029%

99Cd

Nombor jisim99
nombor neutron51
jisim atom relatif
98.924925845 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
17 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1978
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.21%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)1%

100Cd

Nombor jisim100
nombor neutron52
jisim atom relatif
99.920348829 ± 0.0000018 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
49.1 ± 0.5 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

101Cd

Nombor jisim101
nombor neutron53
jisim atom relatif
100.918586209 ± 0.0000016 Da
g-factor
-0.3588 ± 0.00016
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.36 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.177 ± 0.007
tarikh penemuan1969
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

102Cd

Nombor jisim102
nombor neutron54
jisim atom relatif
101.914481797 ± 0.000001784 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.5 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1969
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

103Cd

Nombor jisim103
nombor neutron55
jisim atom relatif
102.913416922 ± 0.000001943 Da
g-factor
-0.33944 ± 0.00016
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.3 ± 0.1 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.007 ± 0.003
tarikh penemuan1960
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

104Cd

Nombor jisim104
nombor neutron56
jisim atom relatif
103.909856228 ± 0.000001795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
57.7 ± 1 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

105Cd

Nombor jisim105
nombor neutron57
jisim atom relatif
104.909463893 ± 0.000001494 Da
g-factor
-0.29528 ± 0.00016
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
55.5 ± 0.4 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.377 ± 0.015
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

106Cd

Nombor jisim106
nombor neutron58
jisim atom relatif
105.906459791 ± 0.000001184 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
1.245 ± 0.022
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1935
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
+ (double β+ decay)

107Cd

Nombor jisim107
nombor neutron59
jisim atom relatif
106.906612049 ± 0.000001782 Da
g-factor
-0.24564 ± 0.00012
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.5 ± 0.02 h
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.6 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1946
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

108Cd

Nombor jisim108
nombor neutron60
jisim atom relatif
107.904183588 ± 0.000001205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.888 ± 0.011
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1935
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
+ (double β+ decay)

109Cd

Nombor jisim109
nombor neutron61
jisim atom relatif
108.904986697 ± 0.000001649 Da
g-factor
-0.33064 ± 0.00016
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
461.3 ± 0.5 d
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.6 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

110Cd

Nombor jisim110
nombor neutron62
jisim atom relatif
109.90300747 ± 0.000000407 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
12.47 ± 0.061
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

111Cd

Nombor jisim111
nombor neutron63
jisim atom relatif
110.904183776 ± 0.000000383 Da
g-factor
-1.188 ± 0.0006
natural abundance
12.795 ± 0.012
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

112Cd

Nombor jisim112
nombor neutron64
jisim atom relatif
111.902763896 ± 0.000000268 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.109 ± 0.007
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

113Cd

Nombor jisim113
nombor neutron65
jisim atom relatif
112.904408105 ± 0.000000262 Da
g-factor
-1.2426 ± 0.0006
natural abundance
12.227 ± 0.007
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.04 ± 0.05 Py
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

114Cd

Nombor jisim114
nombor neutron66
jisim atom relatif
113.903364998 ± 0.000000296 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
28.754 ± 0.081
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)

115Cd

Nombor jisim115
nombor neutron67
jisim atom relatif
114.905437426 ± 0.000000699 Da
g-factor
-1.2966 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
53.46 ± 0.05 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1939
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

116Cd

Nombor jisim116
nombor neutron68
jisim atom relatif
115.90476323 ± 0.000000172 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7.512 ± 0.054
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
26.9 ± 0.9 Ey
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1925
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)100%

117Cd

Nombor jisim117
nombor neutron69
jisim atom relatif
116.907226039 ± 0.000001087 Da
g-factor
-1.485 ± 0.0008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.503 ± 0.005 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1939
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

118Cd

Nombor jisim118
nombor neutron70
jisim atom relatif
117.906921956 ± 0.000021471 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
50.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

119Cd

Nombor jisim119
nombor neutron71
jisim atom relatif
118.909847052 ± 0.000040467 Da
g-factor
-1.8376 ± 0.0008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.69 ± 0.02 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

120Cd

Nombor jisim120
nombor neutron72
jisim atom relatif
119.909868065 ± 0.000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
50.8 ± 0.21 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

121Cd

Nombor jisim121
nombor neutron73
jisim atom relatif
120.91296366 ± 0.000002085 Da
g-factor
0.41733333333333 ± 0.00046666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
13.5 ± 0.3 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1965
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

122Cd

Nombor jisim122
nombor neutron74
jisim atom relatif
121.91345905 ± 0.000002468 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.24 ± 0.03 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

123Cd

Nombor jisim123
nombor neutron75
jisim atom relatif
122.91689246 ± 0.000002894 Da
g-factor
0.52566666666667 ± 0.00046666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.1 ± 0.02 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1983
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

124Cd

Nombor jisim124
nombor neutron76
jisim atom relatif
123.917659772 ± 0.0000028 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.25 ± 0.02 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1974
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

125Cd

Nombor jisim125
nombor neutron77
jisim atom relatif
124.92125759 ± 0.0000031 Da
g-factor
0.57273333333333 ± 0.00046666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
680 ± 40 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.209 ± 0.01
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

126Cd

Nombor jisim126
nombor neutron78
jisim atom relatif
125.92243029 ± 0.000002473 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
512 ± 5 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1978
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

127Cd

Nombor jisim127
nombor neutron79
jisim atom relatif
126.926203291 ± 0.000006656 Da
g-factor
0.58473333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
480 ± 100 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.239 ± 0.011
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

128Cd

Nombor jisim128
nombor neutron80
jisim atom relatif
127.927816778 ± 0.000006905 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
246 ± 2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

129Cd

Nombor jisim129
nombor neutron81
jisim atom relatif
128.932235597 ± 0.0000057 Da
g-factor
-0.12821818181818 ± 0.00010909090909091
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
147 ± 3 ms
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.132 ± 0.009
tarikh penemuan2003
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

130Cd

Nombor jisim130
nombor neutron82
jisim atom relatif
129.934387563 ± 0.000024 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
126.8 ± 1.8 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3.5%

131Cd

Nombor jisim131
nombor neutron83
jisim atom relatif
130.94072774 ± 0.000020653 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
98 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2000
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

132Cd

Nombor jisim132
nombor neutron84
jisim atom relatif
131.945823136 ± 0.000064485 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
84 ± 5 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2000
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)60%
2n (2-neutron emission)

133Cd

Nombor jisim133
nombor neutron85
jisim atom relatif
132.952614 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
61 ± 6 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

134Cd

Nombor jisim134
nombor neutron86
jisim atom relatif
133.957638 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
65 ± 15 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2015
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

135Cd

Nombor jisim135
nombor neutron87
jisim atom relatif
134.964766 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Cadmium-crystal bar

sejarah

penemu atau perekaFredrich Stromeyer
tempat penemuanGermany
tarikh penemuan1817
EtimologiGreek: kadmeia (ancient name for calamine (zinc oxide)).
sebutanKAD-me-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.15 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.00011 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.00007 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.000044 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.9744
2p4.091
2s12.6142
3d14.3931
3p17.3085
3s17.1588
4d32.1232
4p28.5888
4s27.1308
5s39.808