Lead

Lead (Pb)

Heavy dull grey ductile metallic element, belongs to group 14. Used in building construction, lead-place accumulators, bullets and shot, and is part of solder, pewter, bearing metals, type metals and fusible alloys.
Atomic Number82
Atomic Weight207.2
Mass Number208
Group14
Period6
Blockp
Protons82 p+
Neutrons126 n0
Electrons82 e-
Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Lead-2.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
144 pm
Metallic Radius
150 pm
Ionic Radius
98 pm
Crystal Radius
112.00000000000001 pm
Van der Waals radius
202 pm
Density
11.3 g/cm³
Boiling Point
2,013 K
Melting Point
600.65 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electronegativity
1.8
Electrophilicity
1.0698768664426 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.35674316 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
7.4166796 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
177.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
195.2 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.84 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
35.3 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
47 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-4, 2, 4
Color
Slate Gray
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.95 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number82
Mendeleev Number91
Pettifor Number82
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%

Isotopes of Lead

Stable Isotopes
204Pb 206Pb 207Pb 208Pb
Unstable Isotopes
178Pb 179Pb 180Pb 181Pb 182Pb 183Pb 184Pb 185Pb 186Pb 187Pb 188Pb 189Pb 190Pb 191Pb 192Pb 193Pb 194Pb 195Pb 196Pb 197Pb 198Pb 199Pb 200Pb 201Pb 202Pb 203Pb 205Pb 209Pb 210Pb 211Pb 212Pb 213Pb 214Pb 215Pb

History

Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey. The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings. In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn. From the Latin word plumbum

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginAnglo-Saxon: lead; symbol from Latin: plumbum.
Lead and its compounds are poisonous
Pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead

Uses

Large quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries. Lead is used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis. It is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear. Lead, in either pure form or alloyed with tin, or antimony is the traditional material for bullets and shot in firearms use. Used in solder, shielding against radiation and in batteries.

Sources

Found most often in ores called galena or lead sulfide (PbS). Some is found in its native state.