Lead

Lead (Pb)

Heavy dull grey ductile metallic element, belongs to group 14. Used in building construction, lead-place accumulators, bullets and shot, and is part of solder, pewter, bearing metals, type metals and fusible alloys.
Atomic Number82
Atomic Weight207.2
Mass Number208
Group14
Period6
Blockp
Protons82 p+
Neutrons126 n0
Electrons82 e-
Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Lead-2.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Pb (Lead) Enhanced Bohr Model of Pb (Lead) Bohr Model: Pb (Lead) Orbital Diagram of Pb (Lead)

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
144 pm
Metallic Radius
150 pm
Ionic Radius
98 pm
Crystal Radius
112 pm
Van der Waals Radius
202 pm
Density
11.3 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.35674316 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.4166796 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
177.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
195.2 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Valence Electrons4
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Oxidation States-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.8
Electrophilicity
1.069876866442547 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,022.15 K
Melting Point
600.612 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Slate Gray
Appearancemetallic gray
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
35.3 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000289 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.84 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
4.8 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000021 m Ω
Superconducting Point
7.2 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000311 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.000017
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.95 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
1.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
46 GPa
Shear Modulus
5.6 GPa
Young Modulus
16 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.44
Speed of Sound
1,260 m/s
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number82
Mendeleev Number91
Pettifor Number82
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
47 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.171
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00003
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Lead

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes39
Radioactive Isotopes39

178Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.003836171 ± 0.000024889 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
250 ± 80 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2001
Parity+

178Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

179Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.002202492 ± 0.000087203 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
Half Life
2.7 ± 0.2 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

179Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

180Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.997916177 ± 0.000013306 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.1 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

180Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

181Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.9966606 ± 0.00009129 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
Half Life
39 ± 0.8 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

181Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

182Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.992673537 ± 0.000012975 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0
Half Life
55 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

182Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

183Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.991862527 ± 0.00003111 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
-0.76933333333333 ± 0.0033333333333333
Half Life
535 ± 30 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

183Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

184Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.988135634 ± 0.000013743 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0
Half Life
490 ± 25 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

184Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)80%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

185Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.98761 ± 0.000017364 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
-0.758 ± 0.0033333333333333
Half Life
6.3 ± 0.4 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

185Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)66%
α (α emission)34%

186Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.984239409 ± 0.000011813 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.82 ± 0.03 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

186Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)40%

187Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.983910842 ± 0.000005468 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
-0.748 ± 0.002
Half Life
15.2 ± 0.3 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

187Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)90.5%
α (α emission)9.5%

188Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.980879079 ± 0.000010868 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
0
Half Life
25.1 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

188Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)91.5%
α (α emission)8.5%

189Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.980843658 ± 0.000015096 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
-0.718 ± 0.006
Half Life
39 ± 8 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

189Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.58%
α (α emission)0.42%

190Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.978081872 ± 0.000013434 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
0
Half Life
71 ± 1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

190Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.6%
α (α emission)0.4%

191Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.978216455 ± 0.000007099 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
1.33 ± 0.08 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

191Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.51%

192Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.975789598 ± 0.000006147 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.5 ± 0.1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

192Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0059%

193Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.976135914 ± 0.000011044 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

193Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

194Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.974011788 ± 0.000018717 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.7 ± 0.6 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

194Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)7.3%

195Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.974516167 ± 0.000005461 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
Half Life
15 ± 1.4 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity-

195Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

196Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
195.972787552 ± 0.000008277 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
0
Half Life
37 ± 3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

196Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

197Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.973434737 ± 0.000005157 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
-0.71453333333333 ± 0.0015333333333333
Half Life
8.1 ± 1.7 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.08 ± 0.17
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

197Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

198Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
197.97201545 ± 0.000009393 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

198Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

199Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
198.97291262 ± 0.000007322 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
-0.7138 ± 0.00093333333333333
Half Life
90 ± 10 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.08 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

199Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

200Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
199.971818546 ± 0.000010744 Da
Mass Number200
G-Factor
0
Half Life
21.5 ± 0.4 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

200Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

201Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
200.972870431 ± 0.000014758 Da
Mass Number201
G-Factor
0.26924 ± 0.00024
Half Life
9.33 ± 0.03 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.01 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

201Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

202Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
201.972151613 ± 0.000004075 Da
Mass Number202
G-Factor
0
Half Life
52.5 ± 2.8 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

202Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

203Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
202.973390617 ± 0.000007036 Da
Mass Number203
G-Factor
0.27364 ± 0.00024
Half Life
51.924 ± 0.015 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1942
Parity-

203Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

204Pb

Abundance
1.4 ± 0.6
Relative Atomic Mass
203.973043506 ± 0.000001231 Da
Mass Number204
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

204Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

205Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
204.974481682 ± 0.000001228 Da
Mass Number205
G-Factor
0.28376 ± 0.00024
Half Life
17 ± 0.9 My
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.23 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1954
Parity-

205Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

206Pb

Abundance
24.1 ± 3
Relative Atomic Mass
205.97446521 ± 0.000001228 Da
Mass Number206
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity+

206Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

207Pb

Abundance
22.1 ± 5
Relative Atomic Mass
206.975896821 ± 0.000001231 Da
Mass Number207
G-Factor
1.1812 ± 0.0008
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity-

207Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

208Pb

Abundance
52.4 ± 7
Relative Atomic Mass
207.976652005 ± 0.000001232 Da
Mass Number208
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity+

208Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

209Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
208.981089978 ± 0.000001875 Da
Mass Number209
G-Factor
-0.32635555555556 ± 0.00042222222222222
Half Life
3.235 ± 0.005 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.27 ± 0.17
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

209Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

210Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
209.984188381 ± 0.000001554 Da
Mass Number210
G-Factor
0
Half Life
22.2 ± 0.22 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1900
Parity+

210Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)1.9%

211Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
210.988735288 ± 0.000002426 Da
Mass Number211
G-Factor
-0.31091111111111 ± 0.00026666666666667
Half Life
36.1628 ± 0.0025 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.09 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1904
Parity+

211Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

212Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
211.991895891 ± 0.000001975 Da
Mass Number212
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.627 ± 0.006 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1905
Parity+

212Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

213Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
212.996560796 ± 0.000007465 Da
Mass Number213
G-Factor
Half Life
10.2 ± 0.3 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

213Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

214Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
213.999803521 ± 0.000002114 Da
Mass Number214
G-Factor
0
Half Life
27.06 ± 0.07 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1904
Parity+

214Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

215Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
215.004661591 ± 0.00005656 Da
Mass Number215
G-Factor
Half Life
142 ± 11 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

215Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

216Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
216.008062 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number216
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.66 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

216Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

217Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
217.013162 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number217
G-Factor
Half Life
19.9 ± 5.3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

217Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

218Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
218.016779 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number218
G-Factor
0
Half Life
14.8 ± 6.8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

218Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

219Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
219.022136 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number219
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

219Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

220Pb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
220.025905 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number220
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

220Pb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey. The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings. In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn. From the Latin word plumbum

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Anglo-Saxon: lead; symbol from Latin: plumbum.
PronunciationLED (English)
Lead and its compounds are poisonous
Pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead

Uses

Large quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries. Lead is used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis. It is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear. Lead, in either pure form or alloyed with tin, or antimony is the traditional material for bullets and shot in firearms use. Used in solder, shielding against radiation and in batteries.

Sources

Found most often in ores called galena or lead sulfide (PbS). Some is found in its native state.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00017 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.00014 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5805
2p4.5234
2s21.57
3d13.4533
3p22.8505
3s23.8477
4d37.6804
4f38.0312
4p35.9664
4s35.1072
5d58.848
5p53.97
5s51.8685
6p69.607
6s67.9