Plumbum, ²Timbal

Plumbum, ²Timbal (Pb)

chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82
Atomic Number82
Atomic Weight207.2
Nombor jisim208
Group14
Period6
Blockp
proton82 p+
neutron126 n0
Elektron82 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
180 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
144 pm
Metallic Radius
150 pm
ionic radius
98 pm
Crystal Radius
112 pm
Jejari van der Waals
202 pm
ketumpatan
11.3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Plumbum, ²Timbal0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
0.35674316 eV/particle
ionization energy
7.4166796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)
Entalpi pengewapan
177.8 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
4.77 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
195.2 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Model Bohr: Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)
Elektron valens4
Teori ion Lewis: Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)
Orbital Diagram of Pb (Plumbum, ²Timbal)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Keelektronegatifan
1.8
Electrophilicity Index
1.069876866442547 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2,022.15 K
Melting Point
600.612 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Slate Gray
rupametallic gray
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
35.3 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.0000289 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.84 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
4.8 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000021 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
7.2 K
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000311 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.000017
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4.95 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
1.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
46 GPa
shear modulus
5.6 GPa
Young's modulus
16 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.44
Kelajuan bunyi
1,260 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number82
Mendeleev Number91
Pettifor Number82
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
47 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.171
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00003
Nombor kuantum3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Lead

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes43
Natural Isotopes4
Isotopic Composition20852.40%20852.40%20624.10%20624.10%20722.10%20722.10%2041.40%2041.40%

178Pb

Nombor jisim178
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
178.003836171 ± 0.000024889 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
250 ± 80 us
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2001
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

179Pb

Nombor jisim179
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
179.002202492 ± 0.000087203 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.7 ± 0.2 ms
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

180Pb

Nombor jisim180
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
179.997916177 ± 0.000013306 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.1 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1996
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

181Pb

Nombor jisim181
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
180.9966606 ± 0.00009129 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
39 ± 0.8 ms
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1989
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

182Pb

Nombor jisim182
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
181.992673537 ± 0.000012975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
55 ± 5 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

183Pb

Nombor jisim183
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
182.991862527 ± 0.00003111 Da
g-factor
-0.76933333333333 ± 0.0033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
535 ± 30 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1980
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

184Pb

Nombor jisim184
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
183.988135634 ± 0.000013743 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
490 ± 25 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1980
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)80%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

185Pb

Nombor jisim185
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
184.98761 ± 0.000017364 Da
g-factor
-0.758 ± 0.0033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.3 ± 0.4 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1975
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)66%
α (α emission)34%

186Pb

Nombor jisim186
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
185.984239409 ± 0.000011813 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.82 ± 0.03 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1972
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)40%

187Pb

Nombor jisim187
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
186.983910842 ± 0.000005468 Da
g-factor
-0.748 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15.2 ± 0.3 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1972
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)90.5%
α (α emission)9.5%

188Pb

Nombor jisim188
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
187.980879079 ± 0.000010868 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25.1 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1972
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)91.5%
α (α emission)8.5%

189Pb

Nombor jisim189
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
188.980843658 ± 0.000015096 Da
g-factor
-0.718 ± 0.006
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
39 ± 8 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1972
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.58%
α (α emission)0.42%

190Pb

Nombor jisim190
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
189.978081872 ± 0.000013434 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
71 ± 1 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1972
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.6%
α (α emission)0.4%

191Pb

Nombor jisim191
nombor neutron109
jisim atom relatif
190.978216455 ± 0.000007099 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.33 ± 0.08 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1974
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.51%

192Pb

Nombor jisim192
nombor neutron110
jisim atom relatif
191.975789598 ± 0.000006147 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.5 ± 0.1 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1974
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0059%

193Pb

Nombor jisim193
nombor neutron111
jisim atom relatif
192.976135914 ± 0.000011044 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1974
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

194Pb

Nombor jisim194
nombor neutron112
jisim atom relatif
193.974011788 ± 0.000018717 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.7 ± 0.6 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1960
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)7.3%

195Pb

Nombor jisim195
nombor neutron113
jisim atom relatif
194.974516167 ± 0.000005461 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15 ± 1.4 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1957
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

196Pb

Nombor jisim196
nombor neutron114
jisim atom relatif
195.972787552 ± 0.000008277 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
37 ± 3 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1957
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

197Pb

Nombor jisim197
nombor neutron115
jisim atom relatif
196.973434737 ± 0.000005157 Da
g-factor
-0.71453333333333 ± 0.0015333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.1 ± 1.7 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.08 ± 0.17
tarikh penemuan1955
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

198Pb

Nombor jisim198
nombor neutron116
jisim atom relatif
197.97201545 ± 0.000009393 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.4 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

199Pb

Nombor jisim199
nombor neutron117
jisim atom relatif
198.97291262 ± 0.000007322 Da
g-factor
-0.7138 ± 0.00093333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
90 ± 10 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.08 ± 0.09
tarikh penemuan1950
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

200Pb

Nombor jisim200
nombor neutron118
jisim atom relatif
199.971818546 ± 0.000010744 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.5 ± 0.4 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

201Pb

Nombor jisim201
nombor neutron119
jisim atom relatif
200.972870431 ± 0.000014758 Da
g-factor
0.26924 ± 0.00024
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.33 ± 0.03 h
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.01 ± 0.04
tarikh penemuan1950
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

202Pb

Nombor jisim202
nombor neutron120
jisim atom relatif
201.972151613 ± 0.000004075 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
52.5 ± 2.8 ky
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1954
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

203Pb

Nombor jisim203
nombor neutron121
jisim atom relatif
202.973390617 ± 0.000007036 Da
g-factor
0.27364 ± 0.00024
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
51.924 ± 0.015 h
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.1 ± 0.05
tarikh penemuan1942
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

204Pb

Nombor jisim204
nombor neutron122
jisim atom relatif
203.973043506 ± 0.000001231 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
1.4 ± 0.6
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1932
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)

205Pb

Nombor jisim205
nombor neutron123
jisim atom relatif
204.974481682 ± 0.000001228 Da
g-factor
0.28376 ± 0.00024
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
17 ± 0.9 My
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.23 ± 0.04
tarikh penemuan1954
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

206Pb

Nombor jisim206
nombor neutron124
jisim atom relatif
205.97446521 ± 0.000001228 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.1 ± 3
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1927
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)

207Pb

Nombor jisim207
nombor neutron125
jisim atom relatif
206.975896821 ± 0.000001231 Da
g-factor
1.1812 ± 0.0008
natural abundance
22.1 ± 5
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1927
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)

208Pb

Nombor jisim208
nombor neutron126
jisim atom relatif
207.976652005 ± 0.000001232 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
52.4 ± 7
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1927
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)

209Pb

Nombor jisim209
nombor neutron127
jisim atom relatif
208.981089978 ± 0.000001875 Da
g-factor
-0.32635555555556 ± 0.00042222222222222
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.235 ± 0.005 h
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.27 ± 0.17
tarikh penemuan1940
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

210Pb

Nombor jisim210
nombor neutron128
jisim atom relatif
209.984188381 ± 0.000001554 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
22.2 ± 0.22 y
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1900
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)1.9%

211Pb

Nombor jisim211
nombor neutron129
jisim atom relatif
210.988735288 ± 0.000002426 Da
g-factor
-0.31091111111111 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
36.1628 ± 0.0025 m
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.09 ± 0.06
tarikh penemuan1904
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

212Pb

Nombor jisim212
nombor neutron130
jisim atom relatif
211.991895891 ± 0.000001975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.627 ± 0.006 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1905
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

213Pb

Nombor jisim213
nombor neutron131
jisim atom relatif
212.996560796 ± 0.000007465 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.2 ± 0.3 m
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1964
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

214Pb

Nombor jisim214
nombor neutron132
jisim atom relatif
213.999803521 ± 0.000002114 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
27.06 ± 0.07 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1904
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

215Pb

Nombor jisim215
nombor neutron133
jisim atom relatif
215.004661591 ± 0.00005656 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
142 ± 11 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1998
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

216Pb

Nombor jisim216
nombor neutron134
jisim atom relatif
216.008062 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.66 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

217Pb

Nombor jisim217
nombor neutron135
jisim atom relatif
217.013162 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
19.9 ± 5.3 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

218Pb

Nombor jisim218
nombor neutron136
jisim atom relatif
218.016779 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
14.8 ± 6.8 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2009
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

219Pb

Nombor jisim219
nombor neutron137
jisim atom relatif
219.022136 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin11/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)

220Pb

Nombor jisim220
nombor neutron138
jisim atom relatif
220.025905 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube
Lead-2

sejarah

penemu atau perekaKnown to the ancients.
tempat penemuan
tarikh penemuan
EtimologiAnglo-Saxon: lead; symbol from Latin: plumbum.
sebutanLED (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (lautan)
0.00003 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.00017 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.00014 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5805
2p4.5234
2s21.57
3d13.4533
3p22.8505
3s23.8477
4d37.6804
4f38.0312
4p35.9664
4s35.1072
5d58.848
5p53.97
5s51.8685
6p69.607
6s67.9